People go to hospitals in order to cure the diseases they are suffering from. But a hospital is a hub of infections as different microbes are present in the hospital environment freely. This sort of infection is called Nosocomial Infection or Healthcare associated infections or Hospital acquired infections. Out of all patients admitted in hospitals in developed countries around 5 to 10 percent and 25 percent patients in developing countries acquires this infection. To be a Nosocomial infection the disease should not be present in the patient during the admission to hospitals. Rather it should occur during his course of stay in hospital.
During different hospital procedures like catheterisation, endoscopic procedure, surgical procedures these infections can be transmitted. Even in gynaecological procedures and labour room deliveries perinatal infections like Hepatitis B can be transmitted.
According to a surveillance programme the following infections are common in hospitals. A data has been provided below.
As it has been found that the most common hospital acquired infection is UTI with around 40% . Hospital acquired UTI are cause by mainly K.pneumonia, klebsiella oxytoca and pseudomonas.
Surgical site infections are 2nd most predominant with 20% mainly caused by Staphylococcus, E.coli and Enterococcus.
Respiratory tract infections are mainly caused by K.pneumonia, pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacter and E. coli.
Septicaemia or Bacteraemia are mainly caused durin intravenous catheterisation caused by S. Aures, S. Epidermidis, and candida.
Cutaneous infections are caused by candida and S. Epidermidis.
Surgical site infections are common by streptococcus pyogens and pseudomonas.
Clostridium defficile causes pseudomembranous colitis and it is also called antibiotic associated diarrhoea. It mainly caused due to intake of excessive broad spectrum antibiotics.
PREVENTION AND CURE
As it is said prevention is better than cure, so the proper ways to prevent these infections are by maintaining appropriate antiseptic and aseptic measures during the procedures. The instruments should be properly sterilised. And all the procedures to be done by expert individuals to minimise the risk of getting infection.
To cure these infections proper measures like good antibiotic coverage is necessary.
Article Written By : Dimpee Choudhury